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Footnotes

Below are the footnotes from Dr. Jill Blakeway’s book, Making Babies: A Proven 3-Month Program for Maximum Fertility. With so much information out there about infertility, we’ve found that it has been helpful for our patients to have access to the references from the book conveniently listed here.

Chapter 1 – Modern fertility medicine: The risks and overuse of (sometimes) terrific technologies

  1. Chandra A, Stephen E. Impaired fecundity in the United States: 1982-1995. Fam Planning Perspect 1998. 30(1):34-42.
  2. Chung K et al. Factors influencing adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancies achieved through use of in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 2006;86:1634-41
  3. Foresta C et al. Guidelines for the appropriate use of genetic tests in infertile couples. Eur J Hum Genet. 2002 May;10(5):303-12.
  4. Klemetti R et al. Children born after assisted fertilization have an increased rate of major congenital anomalies. Fertility and Sterility 2005:84:1300-7
  5. Lockwood CJ. ART: Does ‘singleton’ really equal success? Contemporary OB/GYN November 2005: 13-16.
  6. Lockwood CT. Prematurity: A riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma (Part 1). Contemporary Ob/Gyn, march 2003
  7. Olson CK et al. In vitro fertilization is associated with an increase in major birth defects. Fertility and Sterility Vol. 84 No. 5 Nov 2005
  8. Pike MC et al. Hormonal factors and the risk of invasive ovarian cancer: a population-based case-control study. Fertil Steril 2004 Jul; 82(1):186-95
  9. Reddy UM et al. Infertility, Assisted Reproductive Technology, and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. Obstetrics & Gynecology Vol 109 No 4 April 2007 p967+
  10. Simpson JL. ART and offspring anomalies: How concerned should we be? Sexuality, Reproduction & Menopause. Vol. 3, No. 2, October 2005
  11. Scoccia B. Leveling with patients about the risks of ART. Contemporary OB/GYN Nov 2006 p 90.
  12. Wright et al. Diagnosis in couples who had ART using fresh nondonor eggs or embryos in 2003. Obstet Gynecol 2007.

Chapter 2 – How to get pregnant: The basics

  1. Agarwal A. Effect of vaginal lubricants on sperm motility and chromatin integrity: a prospective comparative study. Fertil Steril 2008 Feb; 89(2): 375-9.
  2. Eliahu Levitas et al. Relationship between the duration of sexual abstinence and semen quality: analysis of 9,489 semen samples. Fertil Steril 2005;83:1680-6.
  3. Levitas E et al. Relationship between the duration of sexual abstinence and semen quality: analysis of 9,489 semen samples. Fertility and Sterility 2005;83:1680-6
  4. Potter RG, Millman SR. Fecundability and the Frequency of Marital Intercourse: A Critique of Nine Models. Population Studies 1985 Nov; 39 (2): 461-470.
  5. Wilcox AJ et al. Timing of sexual intercourse in relation to ovulation. Effects on the probability of conception, survival of the pregnancy, and sex of the baby. New England Journal of Medicine 1995 Dec 7; 333(23):1517-21.

Chapter 3 – Lifestyles of the naturally fertile

  1. Chavarro JE et al. Diet and lifestyle in the prevention of ovulatory disorder infertility. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Nov;110(5):1050-8.
  2. Hassan MA Negative lifestyle is associated with a significant reduction in fecundity. Fertility and Sterility Vol 81 No. 2 February 2004

          Age

  1. Belloc S et al. Both paternal and maternal ages impact negatively on pregnancy and miscarriage rates: a retrospective study in 21239 IUI cycles. Presented at European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology’s annual conference in Barcelona 2008.
  2. Eskenazi B et al. The association of age and semen quality in healthy men. Hum Reprod. 2003 Feb;18(2):447-54.
  3. Hassan MAM. Effect of male age on fertility: evidence for the decline in male fertility with increasing age. Fer and Ster. Vol 79 Suppl 3 June 2003.
  4. Laufer et al. Enrichment of DNA repair genes expression in women conceiving spontaneously after the age of 45. European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology 21st annual meeting, presented June 21, 2005.
  5. Leader A. Pregnancy and motherhood: The biological clock. Sexuality, Reproduction & Menopause, 2006; Vol 4 No 1 May 2006, 3-6.
  6. Leridon H. Can assisted reproduction technology compensate for the natural decline in fertility with age? A model assessment. Hum Reprod. 2004 Jul;19(7):1548-53.
  7. Slama R. Influence of paternal age on the risk of spontaneous abortion. Am J Epidemiol. 2005 May 1 161(9):816-23.

          Weight

  1. Bhattacharya S. Obesity breaks up sperm DNA. New Scientist 19:45 17 October 2003
    Brunk D. High BMI May Cause Oligospermia in Some. OB GYN News. Nov. 15, 2005
  2. Kirchengast, S, Huber J. Body Composition Characteristics and Fat Distribution Patterns in Young Infertile Women. Fertil Steril. 2004 Mar; 81(3):539-44
  3. Maconochie N et al. Risk factors for first trimester miscarriage – results from a UK-population-based case-control study. BJOG 2007 Feb;114(2):170-86
  4. Pasquali, R et al. Obesity and reproductive disorders in women. Hum Reprod Update. 2003 Jul-Aug:9(4):359-72.
  5. Tanbo T. Both underweight and overweight women had reduced fecundity after assisted reproduction treatment. Evidence-based Obstetrics & Gynecology, Volume 3, Issue 2, 95-96.
  6. Wang JX et al. Obesity increases the risk of spontaneous abortion during infertility treatment. Obes Res. 2002 june;10(6):551-4

          Exercise

  1. Clapp JF. The effect of continuing regular endurance exercise on the physiologic adaptations to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. Am J Sports Med 1996; 24(6 Suppl):S28-9.
    Morris SN and Johnson NR. Exercise During Pregnancy. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine. Vol 50 No 3 March 2005
  2. Rich-Edwards JW et al. Physical activity, body mass index, and ovulatory disorder infertility. Epidemiology 2002 Mar;13(2):184-90.
  3. Russell JB et al. The role of B-endorphins and catechol estrogens on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in female athletes. Fertility and Sterility Vol 42 No. 5 Nov. 1984.
  4. Wheeler GD et al. Reduced serum testosterone and prolactin levels in male distance runners. JAMA. July 27 1984 Vol 252 No 4.
  5. Williams NI et al. Evidence for a Causal Role of Low Energy Availability in the Induction of Menstrual Cycle Disturbances during Strenuous Exercise Training. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 86 (11):5184-5193, 2001.

          Toxins

  1. Abell A et al. High sperm density among members of organic farmers’ association. Lancet 1994 Jun 11; 343(8911):1498
  2. Benoff S et al. Increased seminal plasma lead levels adversely affect the fertility potential of sperm in IVF. Human Reproduction, 2003;18:374-383.
  3. Duty SM et al. The relationship between environmental exposure to phthalates and computer-aided sperm analysis motion parameters. J Androl. 2004 Mar-Apr;25(2):293-302
  4. Duty SM et al. Phthalate exposure and human semen parameters. Epidemiology 2003 May;14(3):269-77.
  5. Hauser R et al. Altered semen quality in relation to urinary concentrations of phthalate monoester and oxidative metabolites. Epidemiology 2006 Nov;17(6):682-91
  6. Hauser R. The environment and male fertility: recent research on emerging chemicals and semen quality. Semin Reprod Med. 2006 Jul;24(3):156-67
  7. Hauser R et al. DNA damage in human sperm is related to urinary levels of phthalate monoester and oxidative metabolites. Hum Reprod 2007 Mar;22(3):688-95
  8. Rozati R et al. Role of environmental estrogens in the deterioration of male factor fertility. Fertil Steril. 2002 Dec;78(6):1187-94
  9. Sugiura-Ogasawara M. Exposure to bisphenol A is associated with recurrent miscarriage. Hum. Reprod. 2005 Aug;20(8):2325-9.
  10. Swan SH. Does our environment affect our fertility? Some examples to help reframe the question. Semin Reprod Med. 2006 Jul;24(3):142-6

          Smoking

  1. Baird DD, Wilcox AJ. Cigarette smoking associated with delayed conception. JAMA 1985; 253 (20):2979-83 May 24-31
    Christianson RA. Gross differences observed in placentas of smokers and non-smokers. Am J Epidemiol 1979; 110:178-87.
  2. Zitzmann M. et al Male smokers have a decreased success rate for in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertility and Sterility Vol 79 Suppl. 3, June 2003.

          Caffeine & Coffee

  1. Caan B et al. Differences in fertility associated with caffeinated beverage consumption. American Journal of Public Health 1998 Feb;88(2):270-4

          Alcohol

  1. Eggert J et al. Effects of alcohol consumption on female fertility during an 18-year period. Fertility and Sterility. Vol 81 No. 2, Feb. 2004
  2. Jensen TK et al. Does moderate alcohol consumption affect fertility? Follow up study among couples planning first pregnancy. BMJ 1998; 317:505-10.
  3. Klonoff-Cohen H et al. Effects of maternal and paternal alcohol consumption on the success rates of in vitro fertilization and gamete intrafallopian transfer. Fertility and Sterility 2003 Feb;79(2):330-9.

          Medications 

  1. Norman RJ 2001 Reproductive Consequences of Cox-2 inhibition. Lancet 358(290):1287-1288
  2. Smith G et al. Reversible ovulatory failure associated with the development of luteinised unruptured follicles in women with inflammatory arthritis taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. British journal of Rheumatology 1996 35(5):458-462

          Recreational drugs

  1. Asch RH, Smith CG. Effects of marijuana on reproduction, Contemporary OB/GYN, October 1983.

          Miscellaneous

  1. Agarwal A et al. Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: An observational study. Fertil Steril 2008 Jan; 89:124.

Chapter 4 – De-stressing 

  1. Berga S et al. Recovery of ovarian activity in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea who were treated with cognitive behavior therapy. Fertil Steril. 2003 Oct;80(4):976-81.
    Hjollund NHI et al. Distress and reduced fertility: A follow-up study of first-pregnancy planners. Fertility and Sterility 1999; 72:47-53
  2. Johnston D. Meditation and Mindfulness for the New Year: A Mind/Body Approach to Infertility. The American Infertility Association, 5 2004.
  3. Klonoff-Cohen H, Natarajan L. The concerns during assisted reproduction technologies (CART) scale and pregnancy outcomes. Fertility and Sterility 2004 April;81(4):982-8

Chapter 5 – Eating to conceive

  1. Chavarro JE et al. Diet and lifestyle n the prevention of ovulatory disorder infertility. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Nov; 110(5):1050-8
  2. Chavarro JE et al. A prospective study of dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality in relation to risk of ovulatory infertility. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep 19
  3. Chavarro JE et al. A prospective study of dairy foods intake and anovulatory infertility.
    Hum Reprod. 2007 May;22(5):1340-7.
  4. Chavarro JE et al. Dietary fatty acid intakes and the risk of ovulatory infertility. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85(1):231-7.

Chapter 6 – Fertility Nutrients

  1. Chavarro JE et al. Use of multivitamins, intake of B vitamins, and risk of ovulatory infertility. Fertil Steril. 2007 Jul 9
  2. Chavarro JE et al. Iron intake and risk of ovulatory infertility. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Nov;108(5):1145-52.

Chapter 13 – What’s your problem?

          Acupuncture

  1. Cai X. Substitution of acupuncture for HCG in ovulation induction. J Tradit Chin Med. 1997 Jun;17(2):119-21
    Chang R et al. Role of acupuncture in the treatment of female infertility. Fertil Steril. 2002 Dec;78(6):1149-53
  2. Gerhard I, Postneek F. Auricular acupuncture in the treatment of female infertility. Gynecol Endocrinol. 1992;6:171-181.
    Jin Y (Chris Hakim, translator). Handbook of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Chinese Medicine: An Integrated Approach. Eastland Press, 2001
  3. Manheimer E et al. Effects of acupuncture on rates of pregnancy and live birth among women undergoing in vitro fertilisation: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008 Mar 8;336(7643):545-9
  4. NIH Consensus Conference. Acupuncture. JAMA 1998 Nov 4;280:1518-24.
  5. Paulus WE et al. Influence of acupuncture on the pregnancy rate in patients who undergo assisted reproduction therapy. Fertility and Sterility 2002 April;77(4):721-4
  6. Siterman S et al. Does acupuncture treatment affect sperm density in males with very low sperm count? A pilot study. Andrologia 2000;32(1):31-9
  7. Siterman S et al. Effect of acupuncture on sperm parameters of males suffering from subfertility related to low sperm quality. Arch Androl. 1997 Sep-Oct;39(2):155-61
  8. Smith C et al. Influence of acupuncture stimulation on pregnancy rates for women undergoing embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 2006 May;85(5):1352-8
  9. Stener-Victorin E et al. Reduction of blood flow impedance in the uterine arteries of infertile women with electro-acupuncture. Hum Reprod. 1996 June;11(6):1314-7
  10. Stener-Victorin E et al. A prospective randomized study of electro-acupuncture versus alfentanil as anaesthesia during oocyte aspiration in in-vitro fertilization. Hum Reprod. 1999 Oct;14(10):2480-4
  11. Stener-Victorin E et al. Effects of electro-acupuncture on anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2000 March;79(3):180-8
  12. Westergaard LG et al. Acupuncture on the day of embryo transfer significantly improves the reproductive outcome in infertile women: a prospective, randomized trial. Fertil Steril 2006 May;85(5):1341-6

Chapter 14 – Hormonal & Endocrine issues

          Luteal phase defect

  1. Henmi H et al. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on serum progesterone levels in patients with a luteal phase defect. Fertility and Sterility August 2003; 80:459-461.

          PCOS

  1. Fulghesu AM et al. N-acetyl-cysteine treatment improves insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2002 Jun;77(6):1128-35
    Shroff R et al. Young Obese Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have Evidence of Early Coronary Atherosclerosis. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:4609-4614
  2. Stener-Victorin, E et al. Effects of Electro-Acupuncture on Nerve Growth Factor and Ovarian Morphology in Rats with Experimentally Induced Polycystic Ovaries. Biology of Reproduction 2000 Nov;63(5):1497-503
  3. Stener-Victorin E. Effects of electro-acupuncture on anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica  2000, 79(3): 180-188

          Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

  1. Foresta C et al. Hormonal treatment of male infertility: FSH. Reprod Biomed Online 2007 Dec;15(6):666-72.

Chapter 15 – Structural or anatomical issues

          Endometriosis 

  1. Parazzini F et al Selected food intake and risk of endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2004 Aug;19(8):1755-9

          Sperm Problems

  1. Comhaire F et al. Statement on the general reduction in sperm quality. Int J Androl. 1995 Dec; 18 Suppl 2:1-2
  2. Irvine S et al. Evidence of Deteriorating semen quality in the Untied Kingdom: birth cohort study of 577 men in Scotland over 11 years. British Medical Journal 1996 312 (7029):467-471.
  3. Gzick DS et al. Sperm Morphology, motility and concentration in Fertile and Infertile Men. New England Journal of Medicine 2001 345(19):1388 – 1393.

          Varicoceles

  1. Ishikawa H et al. Effects of guizhi-fuling-wan on male infertility with varicocele.
    Am J Chin Med, 24(3-4):327-31 1996

Chapter 16 – Infections

  1. Comhaire FH et al. Mechanisms and effects of male genital tract infection on sperm quality and fertilizing potential: the andrologist’s viewpoint. Hum Repro Update. 1999 Sep-Oct;5(5):393-8.
  2. Kaur M et al. Bacteriology of the cervix in cases of infertility: effect on human and animal spermatozoa and role of elastase. Am J Reprod Immunol Microbiol. 1988 May;17(1):14-7.
  3. Kaur M et al. Bacteriology of cervix in cases of infertility: effect on human sperm. Am K Reprod Immunol Microbiol1986 Sep;12(1):21-4.

Chapter 17 – Immune System Issues

  1. Jin-Chun Lu; Yu-Feng Huang; Nian-Qing Lu. Antisperm Immunity and Infertility.
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol.  2008;4(1):113-126.
  2. Rai R, Regan L. Antiphospholipid antibodies, infertility and recurrent miscarriage. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 1997 Aug;9(4):279-82

Chapter 18 – General health issues

          Diabetes 

  1. Moley KH et al. Hyperglycemia induces apoptosis in pre-implantation embryos through cell death effector pathways. Nature Medicine 8, 303 (2002)

Chapter 25 – Assisted reproduction: When you need the next step

          IUI

  1. Comhaire F et al. Critical evaluation of the effectiveness of different modes of treatment of male infertility. Andologia. 1996;28 Suppl 1:31-5.
  2. Jurema MW et al. Effect of ejaculatory abstinence period on the pregnancy rate after intrauterine insemination. Fertil Steril 2005; 84:678-81.
  3. Matorras R et al. Spontaneous pregnancy in couples waiting for artificial insemination donor because of severe male infertility. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1996 Dec 27;70 (2): 175-8.

          IVF

  1. Anderssen AN et al. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2004: results generated from European registers by ESHRE. Hum Reprod. 2008 April; 23(4):756-71.
  2. Heijnen EM et al. A mild treatment strategy for in-vitro fertilization: a randomized non-inferiority trial. Lancet 2007 Mar 3; 369:743-9
  3. Ledger WL. Favourable outcomes from “mild” in-vitro fertilization. Lancet 2007 Mar 3; 369:717-8
  4. Mastenbroek S et al. In vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic screening. N Engl J Med 2007 Jul 5; 357:9-17.
  5. Tang et al. The use of metformin for women with PCOS undergoing IVF treatment. Human Reproduction 2006 Jun;21(6):1416-25

          IVF & Acupuncture

  1. Klonoff-Cohen H, Natarajan L. The concerns during assisted reproductive technologies (CART) scale and pregnancy outcomes. Fertility and Sterility 2004 April;81(4):982-8
  2. Manheimer E et al. Effects of acupuncture on rates of pregnancy and live birth among women undergoing in vitro fertilisation: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008 Mar 8;336(7643):545-9.
  3. Paulus, Zhang et al. Influence of acupuncture on the pregnancy rate in patients who undergo assisted reproduction therapy. Fertility and Sterility 2002 Apr;77(4):721-4
  4. Smith C et al. Influence of acupuncture stimulation on pregnancy rates for women undergoing embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 2006 May;85(5):1352-8
  5. Westergaard LG et al. Acupuncture on the day of embryo transfer significantly improves the reproductive outcome in infertile women: a prospective, randomized trial. Fertil and Steril 2006 May;85(5):1341-6

          ICSI

  1. Foresta C et al. Genetic abnormalities among severely oligospermic men who are candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jan; 90(1):152-6